A suggestion for the analysis of the productive capacity of a nation academic community, ‘do not forget to relativize the results taking into account the country’s per capita R & D expenditure‘. Then, to measure the relative importance of the policies of each country in the Survey, compare in percentage terms the percentage expenditures with R & D with other national expenses. Finally, to have a better portrait, draw a parallel, a simple scatterplot may be sufficient between the size of the gross domestic product of the countries involved and the percentage spent on R & D.
As an example, I found this excellent report on ‘ASSESSMENT OF SCIENTIFIC PRODUCTION IN THE AFRICAN UNION MEMBER STATES 2005-2010′ .
The degree of the detail, the methodological approach, everything is well done and crystal clear, but although they have data on papers output per capita they didn’t include in their study the amount of investment per capita in R&D.
To compare judiciously, I think, we need a ratio between the rate of the input and the rate of output.
According to this very simple exploratory study, I did, ‘Is it reasonable to talk about the cost-effectiveness of national R&D investments through H-index?’ , there are several African countries doing very well.
Uganda, Sudan, Ethiopia, for example, are among the top 10 in the ratio between the number of articles cited and R & D expenditures per capita.
In fact, my observations were not a result of a cost-effectiveness  or cost-benefit analysis , but just a pointer towards care with absolute numbers when comparing national indexes.
 AOSTI (African Observatory of Science, Technology and Innovation) (2014), Assessment of scientific production in the African Union, 2005–2010
 Is it reasonable to talk about cost effectiveness of national R&D investments through H-index?
 Cost-effectiveness analysis
 Cost–benefit analysis
Image from Wikimedia
Illustration from raw scan of The story of geographical discovery: how the world became known Jacobs, Joseph, 1854-1916 New York : D. Appleton The description in that work states: “Africa as known in 1676 (from Dapper’s Atlas),—This includes a knowledge of most of the African rivers and lakes due to the explorations of the Portuguese … Page 155”